The New Covenant is an addendum to the Sinai Covenant and focuses on the evolution of God's relationship with Israel as depicted in scripture. This view posits that the New Covenant, introduced in the New Testament and linked with Yahshua’s ministry, modifies but does not replace the original covenant established at Mount Sinai. It emphasizes continuity with changes in certain aspects, such as the priesthood, while maintaining the covenant's primary commitment to Israel, with Gentiles participating as beneficiaries of these covenantal promises.
1. Original Covenant on Mount Sinai: The covenant made at Mount Sinai, where blood was sprinkled on the people (Exodus 24:8), represents the establishment of a contract between God and the nation of Israel. This covenant set out specific laws and commandments, establishing Israel's unique relationship with God. 2. Modification through Messiah’s Sacrifice: The shedding of the Messiah's blood can be seen, from a scriptural standpoint, as a significant modification to the original covenant. This is akin to an addendum in modern contract law, which alters specific terms of an existing contract. This change is highlighted in Hebrews 7:12, where a change in the priesthood (from Levitical to the order of Melchizedek) indicates a corresponding change in the law. 3. Addendum versus Renewal: In contract law, an addendum modifies an existing contract, while a renewal restarts it. The scriptural narrative suggests that the New Covenant acts as an addendum to the Sinai covenant, introducing changes (like a different kind of priesthood as per Hebrews 7:16-17) but not discarding the original covenant entirely. 4. Role of Israel and Gentiles: In 1 Peter 2:9, the focus is on Israel as a "chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession." This suggests that the priestly role is specific to Israel, intended to set an example for others, including Gentiles. The inclusion of Gentiles, as referenced in Ephesians 2:12-13, can be viewed in light of third-party beneficiaries in a contract. They benefit from the covenant's promises due to the modification introduced through the Messiah, though the covenant itself remains with Israel. 5. Israelite Priesthood: According to this scriptural view, the priesthood remains specific to Israel. The modifications introduced through the New Covenant, as per the texts in Hebrews 7:12 and Jeremiah 31:31, update the terms of the Sinai covenant without establishing a universal priesthood.
In this scriptural-focused interpretation, the New Covenant is seen as an update or addendum to the Sinai covenant, modifying certain aspects (like the nature of the priesthood) while affirming the ongoing and unique covenantal relationship between God and Israel. Gentiles benefit from this modified covenant, but the priestly role and the covenant's primary focus remain with Israel.